Rathore was born on 21 April 1955 in village Harpalsar, Sardarshahar, District Churu, Rajasthan. He was born to Uttam Singh Rathore, a RAS. He was schooled in Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, and then obtained his M.A. in 1980, D.L.L. in 1978, L.L.B. in 1977 at Rajasthan University, Jaipur. He was elected as president of the Student Union at Rajasthan University in 1979 .
He married Chand Kanwar, on 23 February 1978. The couple has one son.